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Cognitive reserve profiles are associated with outcome in schizophrenia.

Published:November 15, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2022.120496

      Highlights

      • Cognitive reserve can be defined as a buffer against the impact of psychosis.
      • Cognitive reserve may help to explain heterogeneity of outcomes in schizophrenia.
      • Higher cognitive reserve is associated with higher level of cognitive performance.
      • Cognitive reserve could act as a “social reserve” related to better social skills.
      • Higher cognitive reserve is associated with a greater quality of life.

      Abstract

      Cognitive reserve (CR), the brain's ability to cope with brain pathology to minimize symptoms, could explain the heterogeneity of outcomes in neuropsychiatric disorders, however it is still rarely investigated in schizophrenia. Indeed, this study aims to classify CR in this disorder and evaluate its impact on neurocognitive and socio-cognitive performance and daily functioning. A group of 106 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia was enrolled and assessed in these aereas: neurocognition, Theory of Mind (ToM) and daily functioning. A composite CR score was determined through an integration of the intelligence quotient and education and leisure activities. CR profiles were classified with a two-step cluster analysis and differences among clusters were determined with an analysis of variance (ANOVA). The cluster analysis was identified with three CR profiles characterized, respectively, by high, medium and low CR. ANOVA analysis showed significant differences on neurocognition, ToM and daily functioning between the clusters: people with higher CR reached significantly superior scores. This study suggests that greater general cognitive resources could act as a buffer against the effect of brain pathology, allowing patients to have a better cognitive performance, social outcome and quality of life.

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