- •Irreversible or prolonged brain damage including BBB breakdown can persist in patients with RCVS.
- •99mTc-ECD SPECT is useful to detect abnormalities over the entire course of RCVS.
- •Further research using radioactive substrates will help to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of RCVS.
Abbreviations:RCVS (Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome), MRA (Magnetic Resonance Angiography), PRES (Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome), BBB (Blood-Brain Barrier), CE-FLAIR (Contrast-enhanced Fluid-attenuated Inversion-Recovery), MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), 99mTc-ECD (99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer), SPECT (Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography), eZIS (easy Z-score Imaging System), vbSEE (voxel-based stereotactic extraction estimation), ICHD-3 (The International Classification of Headache Disorders (2018), third edition), CT (Computed Tomography), CTA (CT angiography), CSF (Cerebrospinal Fluid), ASL (Arterial Spin Labeling), RCU (Reduced Cerebral Uptake)
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
- Narrative review: reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes.Ann. Intern. Med. 2007; 146: 34-44
- Hyperintense vessels: an early MRI marker of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome?.Cephalalgia. 2014; 34: 1038-1039
- The clinical and radiological spectrum of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. A prospective series of 67 patients.Brain. 2007; 130: 3091-3101
- Long-term outcomes after reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome.in: Cephalalgia. 36. 2015: 387-394
- The international classification of headache disorders, 3rd edition.in: Cephalalgia. 38. 2018: 1-211
- Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome: current and future perspectives.Expert. Rev. Neurother. 2011; 11: 1265-1276
- Blood-brain barrier breakdown in reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome: implications for pathophysiology and diagnosis.Ann. Neurol. 2017; 81: 454-466
- Temporal profile of blood-brain barrier breakdown in reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome.Stroke. 2020; 51: 1451-1457
- Evaluation of brain perfusion SPECT using an easy Z-score imaging system (eZIS) as an adjunct to early-diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases.J. Neurol. Sci. 2007; 260: 57-64
- A multicenter validation of regional cerebral blood flow quantitation of using [123I] iodoamphetamine and single-photon emission computed tomography.J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 1996; 16: 781-793
- A new method for evaluation of mild traumatic brain injury with neuropsychological impairment using statistical imaging analysis for Tc-ECD SPECT.Ann. Nucl. Med. 2013; 27: 187-202
- Development of quantitative analysis method for stereotactic brain image: assessment of reduced accumulation in extent and severity using anatomical segmentation.Ann. Nucl. Med. 2003; 17: 289-295
- Differential vascular pathophysiologic types of intracranial atherosclerotic stroke: a high-resolution wall magnetic resonance imaging study.Stroke. 2015; 46: 2815-2821
- A method for attenuation correction in radionuclide computed tomography.IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 1978; 25: 638-643
- Stereotactic statistical imaging analysis of the brain using the easy Z-score imaging system for sharing a normal database.Radiat. Med. 2006; 24: 545-552
- Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome: treatment with combined intra-arterial verapamil infusion and intracranial angioplasty.Am. J. Neuroradiol. 2011; 32: E184-E187
- Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and headache.Clin. Neurol. (Japanese). 2016; 84: 387-398
- Centripetal propagation of vasoconstriction at the time of headache resolution in patients with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome.Am. J. Neuroradiol. 2016; 37: 1594-1598
- Early and delayed Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in SLE patients with CNS involvement.Ann. Nucl. Med. 2000; 14: 25-32
- Quantifying local cerebral blood flow by N-isopropyl-ρ-[123I] iodoamphetamine (IMP) tomography.J. Nucl. Med. 1982; 23: 196-203
- Hyperfixation of HMPAO in subacute ischemic stroke leading to spuriously high estimates of cerebral blood flow by SPECT.Stroke. 1993; 24: 193-194
- Metabolism of 99mTc-l, l-ethyl cisteinate dimer in healthy volunteers.Neuropharmacology. 1991; 30: 283-292
- Assessment of postischemic reperfusion and diamox activation test in stroke using Tc-99m ECD SPECT.J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 1994; 14: S49-S57
- A case of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome presenting with recurrent neurological deficits: evaluation using noninvasive arterial spin labeling MRI.Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 2014; 126: 96-98
- Quantitative arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging analysis of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome: a case series.Headache. 2021; 61: 687-693
- Functional and structural alterations in the migraine cerebellum.J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 2017; 39: 730-739
- Altered experimental pain perception after cerebellar infarction.Pain. 2014; 155: 1303-1312
- Evidence for topographic organization in the cerebellum of motor control versus cognitive and affective processing.Cortex. 2010; 46: 831-844
- Fear of pain as a prognostic factor in chronic pain: conceptual models, assessment, and treatment implications.Curr. Pain Headache Rep. 2010; 14: 88-95