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Reductions in body weight and insulin resistance are not associated with changes in grey matter volume or cortical thickness during the PREVIEW study

  • M. Drummen
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Universiteitssingel 50, 6200 MD Maastricht, the Netherlands.
    Affiliations
    Department of Nutrition and Movement Sciences, Maastricht University Medical Centre +, Maastricht, the Netherlands

    NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht, Maastricht University, the Netherlands
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  • A. Heinecke
    Affiliations
    Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands
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  • E. Dorenbos
    Affiliations
    Centre for Overweight Adolescent and Children's Health Care (COACH), Department of Paediatrics, Maastricht University Medical Centre +, the Netherlands

    NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht, Maastricht University, the Netherlands
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  • A. Vreugdenhil
    Affiliations
    Centre for Overweight Adolescent and Children's Health Care (COACH), Department of Paediatrics, Maastricht University Medical Centre +, the Netherlands

    NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht, Maastricht University, the Netherlands
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  • A. Raben
    Affiliations
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
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  • M.S. Westerterp-Plantenga
    Affiliations
    NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht, Maastricht University, the Netherlands
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  • T.C. Adam
    Affiliations
    Department of Nutrition and Movement Sciences, Maastricht University Medical Centre +, Maastricht, the Netherlands

    NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht, Maastricht University, the Netherlands
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      Highlights

      • Relations of brain structure with body weight or insulin resistance were assessed during a 2-year weight loss intervention.
      • Global grey brain matter volume was inversely associated with insulin resistance at baseline.
      • Reductions in body weight and insulin resistance were not associated with changes in brain structure.

      Abstract

      Introduction

      The effect of changes in body weight or insulin resistance on grey matter volume and cortical thickness change are unclear. The present observational study assessed effects of an 8-week weight loss period (≥8% of body weight), and a subsequent 22-month weight maintenance period on grey matter volume and cortical thickness.

      Methods

      A total of 24 participants (12f/12 m; age 52.8 ± 10.6 years) with overweight/obesity and pre-diabetes were recruited. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine grey matter volume and cortical thickness at baseline, after the weight loss period and after a medium to high dietary protein weight maintenance period.

      Results

      At baseline, global grey matter volume was inversely associated with HOMA-IR, adjusted for sex and age (r = −0.42; p = .049). During the weight loss period participants decreased their BMI (32.1 ± 3.3 to 28.1 ± 2.8 kg/m2, p < .01), body-fat (41.6 ± 6.4 to 35.0 ± 8.0%, p < .01) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR: 4.0 ± 2.0 to 1.8 ± 0.9, p < .01). During the 22-month weight maintenance period, these parameters gradually increased again (BMI: 29.3 ± 3.8 kg/m2; body-fat: 37.8 ± 9.3%; HOMA-IR: 2.9 ± 1.4, p < .01). Global grey matter volume and cortical thickness did not change significantly during the weight loss or weight maintenance period. Changes in body weight, body-fat percentage or insulin sensitivity were not associated with changes in global grey matter volume.

      Conclusion

      In conclusion, we confirmed that global grey brain matter volume was inversely associated with insulin resistance at baseline, yet an intervention yielding a decrease in insulin resistance did not lead to changes in global grey brain matter volume or cortical thickness.

      Trial registration

      The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01777893.

      Keywords

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