A smart peek: Processing of rapid visual displays is disturbed in newly diagnosed, cognitively intact MS patients and refers to cognitive performance and disease progression in late stages

Published:April 23, 2019DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2019.04.031

      Highlights

      • A theoretically integrated way to characterize visual information uptake is presented.
      • Efficiency of visual information uptake undergoes a staged decline in MS.
      • The incremental change may reflect two pathophysiological processes.
      • The threshold of conscious visual perception may be of particular clinical significance.

      Abstract

      Background

      MS can reduce the speed of information processing (IPS) leading to a variable pattern of cognitive impairment. To better understand this deficit, a separate evaluation of the sensory, cognitive, and motor speed component is required. Tests using rapid visual displays allow for assessment of separate components of information uptake. We utilized such a test to compare deficit profiles at the earlier and later stage of MS and their relation to cognitive ability and disease progression.

      Method

      Two groups were evaluated: “Early MS” comprised N = 24 patients with disease durations <2 years; “late MS” N = 45 with disease durations >12 years. Rapid visual displays of letters were utilized to derive individual profiles of visual information uptake according to the ‘theory of visual attention’ (TVA). The resulting data was then compared with measures of disability, fatigue, depression, IPS, visual-spatial ability, verbal and visual memory.

      Results

      In the EMS group, where cognitive impairment was the exception, three of the four main parameters of visual information uptake were already modified, i.e. processing rate C, storage capacity K, and iconic memory μ. In LMS an additional elevation of the fourth parameter, i.e., the perceptual threshold t0 was evident. Threshold values were related to most clinical and cognitive measures.

      Conclusions

      An early deficit pattern of visual information uptake can be detected at a stage, when performance in tests of IPS is still well-preserved. At later disease stages, a single parameter reflecting the threshold of conscious visual perception may provide a valid estimate of cognitive performance and disease progression.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      AD (Alzheimer's disease), C (Processing rate), cEMS (with EMS matched control group), CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), cLMS (with LMS matched control group), EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale), EMS (early MS), IPS (information processing speed), LMS (late MS), K (Visual short-term memory capacity), SDMT (symbol digit modalities test), t0 (Perceptual threshold), TVA (theory of visual attention), VSTM (visual short term memory), Weimus (Wuerzburger Erschoepfungsinventar bei MS), μ (Iconic memory)
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