Migraine, and especially migraine with aura, is a recognized risk factor for stroke [
]; however, the mechanisms underlying the association between migraine and stroke are unclear. Notably, previous studies found that the contribution of migraine to the risk of stroke is more significant in younger women compared with the older ones [
- Sacco S.
- Kurth T.
Migraine and the risk for stroke and cardiovascular disease.
Curr. Cardiol. Rep. 2014; 16: 524
- Sacco S.
- Ornello R.
- Ripa P.
- Pistoia F.
- Carolei A.
Migraine and hemorrhagic stroke: a meta-analysis.
Stroke. 2013; 44: 3032-3038
] and in women with active migraine compared with those with past history of migraine [
- Peng K.P.
- Chen Y.T.
- Fuh J.L.
- Tang C.H.
- Wang S.J.
Migraine and incidence of ischemic stroke: a nationwide population-based study.
Cephalalgia. 2017; 37: 327-335
], suggesting the presence of a migraine-specific factor increasing the risk of stroke. Altered cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) has been proposed as a possible link between migraine and the risk of stroke; however, no study, to date, assessed the effect of age on the CVR of subjects with migraine.
- Kurth T.
- Gaziano J.M.
- Cook N.R.
- Logroscino G.
- Diener H.C.
- Buring J.E.
Migraine and risk of cardiovascular disease in women.
JAMA. 2006; 296: 283-291
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- Migraine and the risk for stroke and cardiovascular disease.Curr. Cardiol. Rep. 2014; 16: 524
- Migraine and hemorrhagic stroke: a meta-analysis.Stroke. 2013; 44: 3032-3038
- Migraine and incidence of ischemic stroke: a nationwide population-based study.Cephalalgia. 2017; 37: 327-335
- Migraine and risk of cardiovascular disease in women.JAMA. 2006; 296: 283-291
- Paradoxical association between age and cerebrovascular reactivity in migraine: a cross-sectional study.J. Neurol. Sci. 2019; 00: 00
- Peripheral vascular dysfunction in migraine: a review.J. Headache Pain. 2013; 14: 80
- Associations between cerebral and systemic endothelial function in migraine patients: a post-hoc study.BMC Neurol. 2011; 11: 146
- Conventional vascular risk factors: their role in the association between migraine and cardiovascular diseases.Cephalalgia. 2015; 35: 146-164
- The renin-angiotensin system: a possible contributor to migraine pathogenesis and prophylaxis.Expert. Rev. Neurother. 2014; 14: 1043-1055
- Is there a persistent dysfunction of neurovascular coupling in migraine?.Biomed. Res. Int. 2015; 2015: 574186
Published online: January 25, 2019
Accepted: January 23, 2019
Received: January 21, 2019
© 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.