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Tardive dyskinesia: Epidemiology

  • Anelyssa D'Abreu
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: 593 Eddy Street APC building, Room 515, Providence, RI 02906, United States.
    Affiliations
    Brown University, Department of Neurology, Providence, RI, United States

    Rhode Island Hospital, Department of Neurology, Providence, RI, United States
    Search for articles by this author
  • Umer Akbar
    Affiliations
    Brown University, Department of Neurology, Providence, RI, United States

    Rhode Island Hospital, Department of Neurology, Providence, RI, United States
    Search for articles by this author
  • Joseph H. Friedman
    Affiliations
    Brown University, Department of Neurology, Providence, RI, United States

    Butler Hospital, Department of Neurology, Providence, RI, United States
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Published:February 05, 2018DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2018.02.007

      Abstract

      The term tardive syndrome (TS) encompasses a few different phenomenologic conditions, some of which occur in isolation and others in association with each other. This, along with the unusual confound for a drug side effect, in which increased use of the drug improves the problem, and the need for most patients to continue taking the offending drug, makes understanding the epidemiology difficult and unreliable. While the change from the “first generation” to the “second generation” of antipsychotic drugs is generally believed to have reduced the incidence of TS, prospective research studies have not supported that contention. Published reports have found point prevalences of 13% with second generation antipsychotics and 32% with first, yet others have found no differences. One study found increasing rates of TS with a 68% prevalence by 25 years, while another found a decreased prevalence over time, due presumably to masking effects of the antipsychotic drugs. Regardless of the possible differences, it is clear that TS remains a significant and common problem associated with almost all antipsychotic drugs. There have also been scattered reports of TS caused by drugs not known to inhibit dopamine receptors. These are reviewed and were found to be often of dubious reliability.
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