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Monitoring and engineering memory engram cells and their circuits

      Identification of engram cells and their circuit for a specifics memory has led to new insights into the cellular and neural circuit mechanisms for memory encoding, retention, and retrieval. Upon learning, a series of neuronal subpopulations, each residing in distinct brain regions, are activated due to rapid increase of synaptic strength, and their new pattern of connectivity is established through rapid formation of new spines/synapses. While this connectivity between engram cell populations is crucial for memory retention, late LTP-type synaptic strengthening seems important for efficient retrieval of the retained memory.
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