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Posttraumatic dystonia

      Highlights

      • Two forms of posttraumatic dystonia are distinguished based upon location of trauma: CPD and PPD.
      • CPD onset is delayed and results in hemidystonia or focal dystonia of the upper extremity.
      • PPD develops within four weeks, occurs in the region of the trauma, and can be associated with CPRS.
      • Treatment is similar to idiopathic dystonia, although response is variable.
      • Although uncommon, CPD and PPD are secondary dystonias that should be identified and treated.

      Abstract

      In most cases the cause for dystonia is unknown. In a small number of patients, trauma precedes the onset of the dystonia. Significant head trauma is a well-recognized precipitating factor in dystonia. However, it has become increasingly recognized that peripheral trauma can also result in dystonia. Secondary dystonia resulting from both central and peripheral trauma, its possible pathogenesis and treatment is discussed in this review.

      Keywords

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