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Neuromuscular complications in cancer

      Highlights

      • Neuromuscular complications in cancer are frequent.
      • Mechanisms comprise toxicity, neoplastic infiltration, paraneoplastic, metabolic and inflammatory causes.
      • Precise differential diagnosis is essential for treatment.
      • Drug toxicity can be a dose limiting factor of cancer therapy.

      Abstract

      Cancer is becoming a treatable and even often curable disease. The neuromuscular system can be affected by direct tumor invasion or metastasis, neuroendocrine, metabolic, dysimmune/inflammatory, infections and toxic as well as paraneoplastic conditions. Due to the nature of cancer treatment, which frequently is based on a DNA damaging mechanism, treatment related toxic side effects are frequent and the correct identification of the causative mechanism is necessary to initiate the proper treatment.
      The peripheral nervous system is conventionally divided into nerve roots, the proximal nerves and plexus, the peripheral nerves (mono- and polyneuropathies), the site of neuromuscular transmission and muscle. This review is based on the anatomic distribution of the peripheral nervous system, divided into cranial nerves (CN), motor neuron (MND), nerve roots, plexus, peripheral nerve, the neuromuscular junction and muscle.
      The various etiologies of neuromuscular complications – neoplastic, surgical and mechanic, toxic, metabolic, endocrine, and paraneoplastic/immune – are discussed separately for each part of the peripheral nervous system.

      Keywords

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