Abstract|Neuro Critical Care 1| Volume 357, SUPPLEMENT 1, e61-e62, October 15, 2015

Characteristics of a novel lithotripsy shock wave blast traumatic brain injury

      Background: Many of the suggested methods used to study the effect of blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) are impractical requiring for laboratory settings.
      Objective: We present a novel method to induce bTBI using Shockwave (SW) lithotripsy in rats with histological, angiographic, and behavioral outcomes over the course of injury and recovery similar to those observed in clinical settings.
      Material and methods: Anesthetized rats were placed on a lithotripsy machine to deliver 5 SW pulses to the right frontal cortex of each rat’s brain. Animals were assigned to three sacrifice endpoints: 24 hrs, 72 hrs, and 168 hrs. Neurological and behavioral assessments (Garcia's test, beam-walking, Rotarod, and elevated-plus-maze) were performed at 3, 6, 24, 72, and 168 hours post-injury. We performed angiography to assess presence of cerebral vasospasm. Damage to brain tissue was assessed by an overall histological severity (OHS).
      Results: Except for beam-walking, OHS significantly correlated with the other three behavioral outcome. OHS correlated most strongly with anxiety at the baseline and 6 hrs post-injury (rbaseline = -0.75, r6 hrs = 0.85; P < 0.05). Median hemispheric differences for contrast peak values (CPV), obtained from DSA studies, for 24, 72, and 168 hrs endpoints were 3.45%, 3.05% and 0.2%, respectively, with significant differences at 24 vs. 168 hours (p < 0.05) and 72 vs. 168 hours (P < 0.01). The differences in CPV were associated with the study endpoints (P < 0.01).
      Conclusion: We successfully established a preclinical rat model of bTBI with characteristics similar to those observed in clinical cases. This new method may be useful for future investigations aimed at understanding bTBI pathophysiology.