Neurological manifestations among patients with HIV — Active tuberculosis coinfection, Sudan 2014

      Introduction: At least one-third of the 35.3 million people living with HIV worldwide are infected with latent tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is the most common presenting illness among people living with HIV, including those who are taking antiretroviral treatment. There were an estimated 1.1 million HIV positive new TB cases globally in 2012. Around 75% of these people live in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite its great burden, neurological manifestations in patients with HIV-active tuberculosis did not receive enough attention.
      Objectives: To study neurological manifestations in patients with HIV-active tuberculosis.
      Methodology: A case series study of 58 consecutive patients with laboratory confirmed HIV-active tuberculosis coinfection attending tertiary hospital for tuberculosis treatment was conducted. Data about neurological symptoms and signs – conducted by a neurologist- were collected from each patient. Patients' approval was obtained.
      Results: 24% of 58 patients were found to have neurological manifestations in clinical assessment. This table demonstrates the neurological manifestations and their frequency.
      Tabled 1
      Neurological diagnosisFrequencyPercent
      AIDS dementia35.2%
      Grand mal epilepsy23.4%
      Cerebellar ataxia11.7%
      Peripheral neuropathy11.7%
      Proximal weakness11.7%
      Spastic quadriplegia11.7%
      Transverse myelitis11.7%
      Conclusion: The frequency of neurological manifestations among patients with HIV-active TB coinfection was found to be higher compared to that of patients with HIV only; 20% (Wadia et al., 2001).