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Immunological differences between classical phenothypes of multiple sclerosis

  • Piotr Iwanowski
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Department of Clinical Neuroimmunology, Poznan University School of Medicine, Poznan Przybyszewskiego 49, Poland. Tel.: +48 61 8691535.
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, Poznan University School of Medicine, Poland

    Department of Clinical Neuroimmunology, Poznan University School of Medicine, Poland
    Search for articles by this author
  • Jacek Losy
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, Poznan University School of Medicine, Poland

    Department of Clinical Neuroimmunology, Poznan University School of Medicine, Poland

    Neuroimmunological Unit, Medical Research Center of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan, Poland
    Search for articles by this author
Published:January 02, 2015DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2014.12.035

      Highlights

      • Immunological and pathophysiological mechanisms determining MS courses are reviewed.
      • Differences between PPMS, RRMS and SPMS are presented and discussed.
      • PPMS features distinct leukocyte surface expression and serum adhesion molecules.
      • Current therapies are ineffective in PPMS due to intact blood–brain barrier.
      • PPMS seems to be evoked by noninflammatory mechanisms.

      Abstract

      Multiple sclerosis (MS), one of the most serious inflammatory and neurodegenerative conditions, is characterized by variable clinical courses — relapsing–remitting (RRMS), primary progressive (PPMS) and secondary progressive (SPMS). Although PPMS affects only 10–15% of the patient population, its course and pathophysiological and immunological background are distinct. In this review we present and discuss main differences between different types of MS, with particular focus on the underlying immunological mechanisms.

      Keywords

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