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Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in multiple sclerosis

Published:January 07, 2013DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2012.12.009

      Abstract

      Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are pluripotent non-hematopoietic precursor cells that can be isolated from bone marrow and numerous other tissues, culture-expanded to purity, and induced to differentiate in vitro and in vivo into mesodermal derivatives. MSCs exhibit many phenotypic and functional similarities to pericytes. The immunomodulatory, tissue protective, and repair-promoting properties of MSCs demonstrated both in vitro and in animal models make them an attractive potential therapy for MS and other conditions characterized by inflammation and/or tissue injury. Other potential advantages of MSCs as a therapeutic include the relative ease of culture expansion, relative immunoprivilege allowing allogeneic transplantation, and their ability to traffic from blood to areas of tissue allowing intravascular administration. The overall published experience with MSC transplantation in MS is modest, but several small case series and preliminary studies yielded promising results. Several groups, including us, recently initiated formal studies of autologous, culture-expanded, bone marrow-derived MSC transplantation in MS. Although there are several potential safety concerns, to date, the procedure has been well tolerated. Future studies that more definitively assess efficacy also will need to address several technical issues.

      Abbreviations:

      BM (bone marrow), CNS (central nervous system), EAE (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis), EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale), FBS (fetal bovine serum), HGF (hepatocyte growth factor), hMSC-CM (human mesenchymal stem cell conditioned medium), IBMIR (instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction), IFN (interferon), IL (interleukin), IV (intravenous), MOG (myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), MS (multiple sclerosis), MSC (mesenchymal stem cell), TNFα (tumor necrosis factor-alpha)

      Keywords

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