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Treatment approaches of gastrointestinal dysfunction in Parkinson's disease, therapeutical options and future perspectives

      Abstract

      Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is a common but underestimated feature in Parkinson's disease (PD). Out of the multimodal spectrum of treatment options, there currently are only a few pharmacological treatments available to improve gastrointestinal motility and symptoms. Because enteric nervous function is mainly regulated by transmitters different from those involved in the brain, dopamine replacement is not a treatment option in PD patients. This article focuses on the known regulative mechanism of GI function and presents known and upcoming treatment options for GI dysfunction in PD.

      Abbreviations:

      5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine), CNS (central nervous system), DA (dopamine), ENS (enteric nervous system), GI (gastrointestinal), LB (Lewy bodies), MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1:2:3:6-tetrahydropyridine), PD (Parkinson's disease), TH (tyrosine hydroxylase), VIP (vasoactive intestinal polypeptide), PNS (peripheral nervous system), MSA (multi system atrophy Hr-QoL, health-related quality of life)

      Keywords

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