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Anorectal dysfunctions in Parkinson's disease

  • Author Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this work.
    Joong-Seok Kim
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Department of Neurology, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul St. Mary's hospital, 505, Banpo-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul, South Korea. Tel.: +82 2 2258 6078; fax: +82 2 599 9686.
    Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this work.
    Hye Young Sung
    Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea

    Health Care Institute, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea
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  • Kwang-Soo Lee
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea
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  • Yeong-In Kim
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea
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  • Hee-Tae Kim
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this work.

      Abstract

      Anorectal symptoms are frequently found in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), mainly manifested as diffuse lower abdominal discomfort, constipation, and fecal incontinence. Among these symptoms, constipation may precede by years the motor manifestations of PD. Research has focused for decades on selection of a measurement method for detection of abnormalities and support of clinometric instruments for anorectal symptoms. We review those manifestations and their contribution to evaluation of the anorectal symptoms in patients with PD.

      Keywords

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