Parkinson's disease is not only a movement disorder: non-motor symptoms such as loss of smell, constipation, depression, cognitive impairment, sleep problems and disturbances of the autonomic nervous system also feature. The etiology is still unknown, although an increasing number of gene-related Parkinsonian syndromes have been identified. It is intriguing to speculate that PD starts by the intake of a toxin, bacteria or virus. This idea stems from the fact that pathological abnormalities such as Lewy neuritis, Lewy bodies and alpha-synuclein accumulation are first found in the enteric nervous system of the gut and in the olfactory bulb. There is increasing evidence that the disease may spread out from the enteric nervous system of the gut via the vagal nerve up to the brain. Here we present data from animal work which supports this assumption.
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease: a clinic-pathological study in 100 cases.J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1992; 55: 181-184
- Non-motor dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2007; 13: 323-332
- Treatment strategies for nonmotor manifestations of Parkinson's disease.Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009; 10: 773-784
- How does Parkinson's disease affect quality of life? A comparison with quality of life in the general population.Mov Disord. 2000; 15: 1112-1118
- Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease: dopaminergic pathophysiology and treatment.Lancet Neurol. 2009; 8: 464-474
Parkinson J. An essay on the shaking palsy. London: Whittingham and Rowland for Sherwood, Neely and Jones, 1819.
- Olfactory dysfunction as a diagnostic marker for Parkinson's disease.Expert Rev Neurother. 2009; 9: 1773-1779
- Rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder as an early marker for neurodegenerative disorder: a descriptive study.Lancet Neurol. 2006; 5: 572-577
- Frequency of bowel movements and the future risk of Parkinson's disease.Neurology. 2001; 57: 456-462
Jost WH., et al. Gastrointestinal dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Sci 2010;289:69–73.
- Non-motor features of Parkinson's disease: depression and dementia.Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2009; 15: S87-S92
- Staging of brain pathology related to sporadic Parkinson's disease.Neurobiol Aging. 2003; 24: 197-211
- Parkinson's disease: the presence of Lewy bodies in Auerbach's and Meissner's plexuses.Acta Neuropathol. 1988; 76: 217-221
- Gastric alpha-synuclein immunoreactive inclusions in Meissner's and Auerbach's plexuses in cases staged for Parkinson's disease-related brain pathology.Neurosci Lett. 2006; 396: 67-72
- Colonic biopsies to assess the neuropathology of Parkinson's disease and its relationship with symptoms.PLoS ONE. 2010; 5 (e12728): 1-9
- Lewy pathology in the submandibular gland of individuals with incidental Lewy body disease and sporadic Parkinson's disease.Acta Neuropathol. 2010; 119: 703-713
- Progression of Parkinson's disease pathology is reproduced by intragastric administration of rotenone in mice.PLoS One. 2010; 5 (e 8762): 1-10
- Lewy bodies in grafted neurons in subjects with Parkinson's disease suggest host-to-graft disease propagation.Nat Med. 2008; 14: 501-503
- Parkinson's disease pathology in long-term embryonic nigral transplants in Parkinson's disease.Nat Med. 2008; 14: 504-506
- Characterization of Lewy body pathology in 12- and 16-year-old intrastriatal mesencephalic grafts surviving in a patient with Parkinson's disease.Mov Disord. 2010; 25: 1091-1096
- Is Parkinson's disease a prion disorder?.PNAS. 2009; 106: 12571-12572
- Are synucleinopathies prion-like disorders?.Lancet Neurol. 2010; 11: 1128-1138
- Bilateral olfactory dysfunction in early stage treated and untreated idiopathic Parkinson's disease.J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1992; 55: 138-142
- A self-administered odor identification test procedure using the “sniffin' sticks”.Chem Senses. 2006; 31: 595-598
- Critical role of lipid rafts in virus entry and activation of phosphoinositide 3′kinase/Akt signaling during early stages of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in neural stem/progenitor cells.J Neurochem. 2010; 115: 537-549
- Well-water consumption and Parkinson's disease in rural California.Environ Health Perspect. 2009; 117: 1912-1918
- Review: Parkinson's disease: a dual-hit hypothesis.Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2007; 33: 599-614
- Identifying PD-causing genes and genetic susceptibility factors: current approaches and future prospects.Prog Brain Res. 2010; 183: 3-20
- Environmental and familial risk factors of Parkinson's disease case-control study.Can J Neurol Sci. 2010; 37: 637-642
- Advances in environmental epidemiology.Mov Disord. 2010; 25: S58-62
- Environmental factors and Parkinson's disease: a case-control study in Belgrade, Serbia.Int J Neurosci. 2010; 120: 361-3667
- Metal emissions and urban incident Parkinson disease: a community health study of Medicare beneficiaries by using geographic information systems.Am J Epidemiol. 2010; 172: 1357-1363
Published online: May 20, 2011
Accepted: April 21, 2011
Received in revised form: April 17, 2011
Received: March 29, 2011
© 2011 Elsevier B.V. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.